Wednesday, January 15, 2014

Android Activity/Fragment life cycle analysis

Android life cycle is complex when activity comes with fragments. Though the document improves a lot, it still has not covered all scenarios. To have a better understanding of it, I made a simple app to print out all critical life cycles for both activity and nested fragments.

First of all, it is important to point out that when all activities of an app are killed the app process may still be running. As long as the process is running, all static variables will be valid. Once the process is killed by the OS all static variables will be lost. So be careful to use static variables.

To cover all possible scenarios that may impact your android app, I categorised them below
  1. New created: Fragment/Activity starts from nothing
  2. Rotate new created: Fragment/Activity restarts after rotation
  3. Home key pressed: Fragment/Activity is kicked to the background
  4. Back from background
with the combination of different cases:
  1. Fragment sets RetainInstance true/false
  2. App is killed in the background after home key pressed. To simulate the app is killed by the system in the background, you can tick the box under Settings->Developer options->Don't keep activities. In this case, the active activity will be killed even the app is sent to background by pressing home button.

Here is the simple project used for the analysis
https://github.com/kejunxia/AndroidLifeCycleAnalysis

Also here is a library to apply Android MVC pattern and make the lifecycle easier to be used as well
http://kejunxia.github.io/AndroidMvc/
https://github.com/kejunxia/AndroidMvc

Summary:
  • New created: almost the same for the four scenarios as below. Except the sequence of onCreateView and onWindowFocusChanged
  • Rotate new created: When Fragment get set RetainInstance true, fragment doesn't call onCreate and onDestroy. And the following fragment calls are invoked but bundle passed in are null
    • onCreateView
    • onViewCreated
    • onActivityCreated
    • onViewStateRestored
    Also note that onSaveInstanceState for both Activity and Fragment is called with non-null outState, no matter if the fragment is set RetainInstance true or false. Which means activities and fragments always save instance state during rotation.
  • Home button pressed(send app to background): onSaveInstanceState is called with outState always as the result above. When fragment is set RetainInstance true, the following calls won't be called:
    • Activity.onDestroy
    • Fragment.onDestroyView
    • Fragment.onDestroy
    • Fragment.onDetach
    • Activity.onDetachedFromWindow
  •  Back from background: This is a little complicated. I split it in to 2 cases.
    • App killed by system: this is simulated by turning on Don't Keep Activities in developer settings on the device. In this case the system is going to try restoring the previous state which should be stored by onSaveInstanceState(as mentioned it's always called). This is different from creating a new activity. In this case the system will do the things below:
      • Activity.onCreate will be called with the savedInstanceState to recover previous state, while if it's creating a new activity onCreate will recieve a null bundle.
      • Fragment.onAttach
      • Activity.onAttachFragment
      • Activity.onStart NOTE THAT this will be called after the fragment is attached while if it's new creating activity, onstart is before the fragment is attached.
      • Fragment.onCreate will be called with savedInstanceState like the activity.
      • Activity.onRestoreInstanceState is called which won't be called when creating a new activity
    • Back from background before killed:
      • no creation will occur
      • no savedInstanceState will occur

Life cycle outputs:

========================================================================
Activity:                            new created
Fragment retainInstance:   false
Kill Activity immediately:   false
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreate: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments`
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView

Activity:                            rotate new created
Fragment retainInstance:   false
Kill Activity immediately:   false
ActivityCycle﹕ onPause
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onPause
ActivityCycle﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onStop
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStop
ActivityCycle﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroyView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDetach
ActivityCycle﹕ onDetachedFromWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onRestoreInstanceState: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged

Activity:                           home button pressed
Fragment retainInstance:   false
Kill Activity immediately:   false
ActivityCycle﹕ onPause
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onPause
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged
ActivityCycle﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onStop
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStop

Activity:                            back from background
Fragment retainInstance:   false
Kill Activity immediately:   false
ActivityCycle﹕ onRestart
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged

========================================================================
Activity:                            new created
Fragment retainInstance:   true
Kill Activity immediately:   false

ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreate: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView

Activity:                            rotate new created
Fragment retainInstance:   true
Kill Activity immediately:   false
ActivityCycle﹕ onPause
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onPause
ActivityCycle﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onStop
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStop
ActivityCycle﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroyView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDetach
ActivityCycle﹕ onDetachedFromWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onRestoreInstanceState: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged

Activity:                            home button pressed
Fragment retainInstance:   true
Kill Activity immediately:   
false
ActivityCycle﹕ onPause
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onPause
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged
ActivityCycle﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onStop
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStop


Activity:                            back from background
Fragment retainInstance:   true
Kill Activity immediately:   
false
ActivityCycle﹕ onRestart
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged

======================================================================
Activity:                            new created
Fragment retainInstance:   true
Kill Activity immediately:   true
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreate: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView


Activity:                            rotate new created
Fragment retainInstance:   true
Kill Activity immediately:   true
ActivityCycle﹕ onPause
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onPause
ActivityCycle﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onStop
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStop
ActivityCycle﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroyView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDetach
ActivityCycle﹕ onDetachedFromWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onRestoreInstanceState: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged


Activity:                            home button pressed
Fragment retainInstance:   true
Kill Activity immediately:   true
ActivityCycle﹕ onPause
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onPause
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged
ActivityCycle﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onStop
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStop
ActivityCycle﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroyView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDetach
ActivityCycle﹕ onDetachedFromWindow


Activity:                            back from background
Fragment retainInstance:   true
Kill Activity immediately:   true
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onRestoreInstanceState: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged


======================================================================
Activity:                            new created
Fragment retainInstance:   false
Kill Activity immediately:   true
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreate: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=null
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=null
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged


Activity:                            rotate new created
Fragment retainInstance:   false
Kill Activity immediately:   true
ActivityCycle﹕ onPause
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onPause
ActivityCycle﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onStop
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStop
ActivityCycle﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroyView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDetach
ActivityCycle﹕ onDetachedFromWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onRestoreInstanceState: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged

Activity:                            home button pressed
Fragment retainInstance:   false
Kill Activity immediately:   true
ActivityCycle﹕ onPause
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onPause
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged
ActivityCycle﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onSaveInstanceState: outState=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onStop
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStop
ActivityCycle﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroyView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDestroy
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onDetach
ActivityCycle﹕ onDetachedFromWindow

Activity:                            back from background
Fragment retainInstance:   false
Kill Activity immediately:   true
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onAttach
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachFragment
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView          Called many times here
ActivityCycle﹕ onStart
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onCreateView: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewCreated: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onActivityCreated: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onViewStateRestored: bundle=Object
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onStart
ActivityCycle﹕ onRestoreInstanceState: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostCreate: bundle=Object
ActivityCycle﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onPostResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onResumeFragments
FragmentCycle===>﹕ onResume
ActivityCycle﹕ onAttachedToWindow
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onCreateView
ActivityCycle﹕ onWindowFocusChanged

162 comments:

  1. I think you can ignore the onCreateView calls. They don't have much to do with lifecycle. Those calls are factory invokations when the framework is inflating each view from the xml (hence multiple calls).

    ReplyDelete
  2. Useful blog to Android Activity/Fragment life cycle analysisAndroid Training

    ReplyDelete
  3. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Really nice experience you have. Thank you for sharing. It will surely be an experience to someone.
    Python training in marathahalli | Python training institute in pune

    ReplyDelete
  5. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Your good knowledge and kindness in playing with all the pieces were very useful. I don’t know what I would have done if I had not encountered such a step like this.
    advanced excel training in bangalore

    ReplyDelete
  7. This is beyond doubt a blog significant to follow. You’ve dig up a great deal to say about this topic, and so much awareness. I believe that you recognize how to construct people pay attention to what you have to pronounce, particularly with a concern that’s so vital. I am pleased to suggest this blog.
    Java training in Jaya nagar | Java training in Electronic city

    Java training in Chennai | Java training in USA | Java training in Kalyan nagar

    ReplyDelete
  8. I found this informative and interesting blog so i think so its very useful and knowledge able.I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article.

    Data Science training in Chennai | Data science training in bangalore

    Data science training in pune | Data science online training

    Data Science Interview questions and answers

    ReplyDelete
  9. She noticed a wide variety of pieces, with the inclusion of what it is like to have an awesome helping style to have the rest without hassle grasp some grueling matters.
    iosh course in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  10. Really you have done great job,There are may person searching about that now they will find enough resources by your post.
    Selenium Training in Chennai | SeleniumTraining Institute in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  11. This is a terrific article, and that I would really like additional info if you have got any. I’m fascinated with this subject and your post has been one among the simplest I actually have read.

    devops online training

    aws online training

    data science with python online training

    data science online training

    rpa online training

    ReplyDelete
  12. Thanks for sharing the useful blog about Android Activity/ Fragment Life Cycle Analysis.

    Mobile App Development Companies in Coimbatore

    ReplyDelete
  13. It is a great post. Keep sharing such kind of useful information.

    karnatakapucresult
    Education

    ReplyDelete
  14. Thank you for sharing such a informative information with us. Keep on sharing the blog like this.

    PHP Online Training


    Power BI Online Training


    Python Online Training

    ReplyDelete
  15. You know your projects stand out of the herd. There is something special about them. It seems to me all of them are really brilliant!
    AI learning course malaysia

    ReplyDelete
  16. సంతోషకరమైన మరియు సంతోషకరమైన రోజు. వ్యాసం పంచుకున్నందుకు చాలా ధన్యవాదాలు

    máy phun tinh dầu

    máy khuếch tán tinh dầu tphcm

    máy khuếch tán tinh dầu hà nội

    máy xông phòng ngủ

    ReplyDelete
  17. Thanks for Sharing this useful information. Get sharepoint apps development from veelead solutions

    ReplyDelete
  18. wow, lots of data and information. thanks for sharing with your readers who may have questions about this topic. spectrummobile com/activate

    ReplyDelete
  19. If you want best smart phones under 10000-15000 then go on. https://www.arecious.com/

    ReplyDelete
  20. I was just browsing through the internet looking for some information and came across your blog. I am impressed by the information that you have on this blog. It shows how well you understand this subject. Bookmarked this page, will come back for more.
    ir 4.0 training in malaysia

    ReplyDelete
  21. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  22. Nice Presentation and its hopefull words..
    if you want a cheap web hostinng in web
    cheap web hosting company chennai

    ReplyDelete
  23. Excellent knowledge shared about Android, Thanks to you.
    Digital Marketing Course

    ReplyDelete
  24. https://www.growsaleindia.com/

    Grow sale india classified ads website Buy&sell find just about anything

    ReplyDelete
  25. Found your post interesting to read. I learn new information from your article.Thank you for sharing. Very valuable information.

    SAP-ABAP Training in Pune

    ReplyDelete
  26. You could definitely see your enthusiasm within the paintings you write. The world hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who aren’t afraid to mention how they believe. At all times go after your heart.
    Gaurav Taneja

    ReplyDelete
  27. Thanks for your excellent blog and giving great kind of information. So useful. Nice work keep it up thanks for sharing the knowledge.
    Visit us
    Click Here
    For More Details
    Visit Website
    See More

    ReplyDelete


  28. Buy Vyvanse Online
    Buy Oxycodone online

    Buy Oxycontin online
    Buy suboxone online



    Buy Macaw Parrots Online
    Macaw Parrots For Sale

    Welcome to Official Macaw Parrots For Sale Farm. After talking to breeders and vet and trying to get experience with birds in real life are both good, just note that a vet is going to give you waaay more unbiased info while you will need to be on your guard for a breeder just trying to make a sale. Like pet stores, some will not hesitate to up-sell all of the fantastic qualities of their little baby macaw, showing you how cuddly it is, how quiet, and not mentioning how puberty will most likely completely change their personalities. Macaw Parrots for Sale.


    Macaws For Sale
    Macaw parrots farm



    Buy Marijuana Online
    Weed For Sale

    Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol, one of the 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoid

    Mail Order Marijuana
    Order weed Online USA


    Goldendoodle Puppies For Sale
    Adopt a Golden Doodle Puppy

    The Goldendoodle is a cross-breed dog, obtained by breeding a Golden Retriever with a Poodle. The name, which alters "poodle" to "doodle" by analogy to "Labradoodle", another poodle cross, was coined in 1992.

    Golden Doodle Pupies for sale near me
    Golden doodle Puppies USA

    Tavor 7 For Sale
    Buy Tavor Online

    Tavor 7 For Sale. The TAVOR 7 is a fully ambidextrous platform on which the ejection side and the charging handle can be switched quickly and easily from side ...

    Firearms For sale
    Tavor 7 for sale USA


    Buy Dank Vapes Carts Full Gram
    Dank Vapes for sale
    Dank Vapes
    Dank Carts for sale online



    Buy Space Monkey Meds Online
    Buy Weed Tins Online

     Buy Space Monkey Meds Online - Buy Weed Tins Online Our weed tins stands unique in quality and purity. Our mail order marijuana services stand apart in stealth and discretion. Place an order to buy weed tins online with us today and benefit from our amazing prices and coupon codes. Ordering space monkey meds for sale online can be a challenging task to newbies. Here at Weed tins Shop, we provide weed tins for sale with easy purchasing and checkout procedures.


    Buy Runtz Strain Online
    Runtz OG

    ReplyDelete
  29. It’s really great information Thanks for sharing.

    Best Manual Testing Training in Bangalore, BTM layout. My Class Training Academy training center for certified course, learning on Manual Testing Course by expert faculties, also provides job placement for fresher, experience job seekers.

    ReplyDelete
  30. This web host makes use of SSD servers that are lighting fast when compared to other disks used by other popular web host companies. If you want to get the Black Friday Hosting Deals 2019, then A2 is a preferred choice.

    ReplyDelete
  31. Enjoyed reading the article above, really explains everything in detail,the article is very interesting and effective.Thank you and good luck…

    Start your journey with DevOps Course and get hands-on Experience with 100% Placement assistance from experts Trainers @Softgen Infotech Located in BTM Layout Bangalore.

    ReplyDelete
  32. Thanks a lot for sharing it, that’s truly has added a lot to our knowledge about this topic. Have a more success ful day. Amazing write-up, always find something interesting.
    and here i want to share some thing about mule 4 training.


    ReplyDelete
  33. I am really happy to say it’s an interesting post to read. I learn new information from your article, you are doing a great job. Keep it up…

    Real Time Experts provides Best SAP PM Training in Bangalore with expert real-time trainers who are working Professionals with min 8+ years of experience in Java Training Industry, we also provide 100% Placement Assistance with Live Projects on Java Training.

    ReplyDelete
  34. Hello do you know that the best treatment for opiod addiction,illegal or prescription is suboxone pills. Suboxone pills provides versatility in the way it helps patients.our medicated shop is the place to shop for all kinds of medication needs including;
    BuUY HYDROCODONE ONLINE
    BUY OXYCODONE ONLINE
    BUY OXYCONTIN ONLINE
    BUY VALIUM ONLINE
    BUY VYVANSE ONLINE
    BUY GABAPENTIN ONLINE
    BUY AMBIEN ONLINE
    Check out all our available pills on our online shop. https://greenlandspharmacy.com/

    ReplyDelete
  35. This post is really nice and informative. The explanation given is really comprehensive and informative.

    aws training videos

    ReplyDelete
  36. I can’t imagine that’s a great post. Thanks for sharing.

    Start your journey with AWS Course and get hands-on Experience with 100% Placement assistance from Expert Trainers with 8+ Years of experience @eTechno Soft Solutions Located in BTM Layout Bangalore.

    ReplyDelete
  37. What exactly is CBD (cannabidiol) oil and what can it do? What doesn’t it do? You’re likely here because someone told you to try CBD oil for pain, insomnia, anxiety, cancer, or another medical condition. Or you may be interested in trying it for everyday wellness, like a daily supplement.

    Medical marijuana has already been successfully legalized in 23 US states and Washington DC. Why? Because there is substantial scientific proof that weed is actually good for you. In fact, some researchers claim marijuana to be a natural panacea to a large number of diseases.Email us at medicalcannabisbudshop@gmail.com for your order process and talk to our experts for advice....we provide reliable and discreet overnight delivery within 50 states and Canada and our branch in Netherlands is in charge of orders from Europe and Asia....we provide you with the best buds,cbd oils,thc cartridges,dankwoods,backwoods,cbd massage ceams,cbd capsules......

    blue dream weed for saleHowever, when shopping at your local cannabis shop, it’s important to note how much CBD and THC are in a product. Products that contain both CBD and THC are increasingly common at cannabis retailers and suit the needs of many consumers.

    ReplyDelete
  38. Truly, this article is really one of the very best in the history of articles. I am a antique ’Article’ collector and I sometimes read some new articles if I find them interesting. And I found this one pretty fascinating and it should go into my collection. Very good work!
    ExcelR pmp institute in bangalore

    ReplyDelete
  39. Truly, this article is really one of the very best in the history of articles. I am a antique ’Article’ collector and I sometimes read some new articles if I find them interesting. And I found this one pretty fascinating and it should go into my collection. Very good work!
    ExcelR data Analytics courses

    ReplyDelete
  40. Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes. The main psychoactive

    part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol, one of the 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids

    buy real weed online
    buy edibles
    order cannabis edibles
    buy recreational weed online
    order cbd edibles online
    buy cbd hemp oil
    buy medical weed online
    buy dank vapes cartridges
    buy brass knuckles
    buy mario carts
    buy weed online without medical card
    buy cannabis seeds online
    buy OG kush
    buy sour diesel weed online
    buy moonrocks
    hybrid strains
    indica strains

    ReplyDelete
  41. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. Great workdata scientist certification malaysia
    big data malaysia
    data analytics courses malaysia

    ReplyDelete


  42. Hello, and welcome to our website for the best hand raised
    hand raised macaw parrots for sale. We pride ourselves in the best taming practices of macaws among aviaries. All of ourmacaws for sale are bred in a disease-free Biosecure breeding sanctuary. They are well socialized, having been raised in our home as members of our own family in order for them to become ready to be a member of yours, we have green wing macaw,severe macaw for sale,scarlet macaw for sale,blue and yellow macaw for sale among others. They are quite comfortable around all ages, including the elderly and young children. When you purchase a bird from Us, we are committed to offering lifetime support and guidance to you and your family.You can read more and view our available birds.You can
    READ MORE and view our avilable birds.

    We have other cat breeds ready for adoption, Welcome to British Shorthair kittens cattery, home of Registered British shorthair kittens for sale. As Registered and well recognized British shorthair kittens breeder, we have been raising British Shorthair kittens since 2015.As British shorthair kittens breeder,we have extensive experience in breeding and grooming British Shorthair Kittens . We provide an opportunity to become an owner of our highly valued British shorthair kittes for sale which have been well trained and have all qualities of a good British Shorthair such as calmed personalities of British shorthair kittens and good tempers ,hypoallergenic kittens for sale.We equally provide shipping services to ensure your British Shorthair kitten arrives your location with no hassles. So feel at home adopt a British shorthair kitten online or adopt a British shorthair kitten near me with ease.


    Welcome to our farm where we breed Registered pomeranian puppies for sale.As a registered pomeranian puppies breeder, we have made it possible for pomeranian puppy lovers to
    buy pomeranian puppies online,buy zwergpitz pomeranian from our family run farm. Pomeranian dogs are small dogs with a weight of 1.36 to 3.17 kg and a withers height of 15 to 18 cm. They are compact but robust dogs with a lush, textured coat and a tall and flat tail. The top coat forms a fur ruff on the neck, for which poms are known, and on the hindquarters they have a margin of feathered hair.You can click HERE to view our available pomeranian puppies

    ReplyDelete
  43. Welcome to Ragdoll Kittens Cattery click here to adopt a ragdoll kitten online We are a small and loving cattery . We are pleased that you have chosen to visit our Ragdoll cats/Ragdoll kittens cattery, and hope you will notice right away from our website how beautiful and loved our Ragdoll cats and kittens are. These beauties are easily integrated into our loving family home, first as mothers carrying the litters, and then from the time the ragdoll kittens are born until they are adopted so we always have Ragdoll kittens for sale|Ragdoll kittens for adoption|Ragdoll kitten price|Ragdolls|Cost of Ragdoll kittens|. Our adult cats have tested negative for HCM and PKD1 through University of California Davis. Upon request, we have five generations of pedigree documentation on our adults available to anyone who is interested. Ragdoll kittens are registered with The International Cat Association (RAGDOLL KITTENS FOR SALE),and are never caged. The cats that are in our reputable breeding program can produce mink, sepia and traditional Ragdoll kittens. Ragdolls have a laid-back personality and enjoy being physically handled making them one of the best lap cats! We are all family here at Ragdoll kittens cattery since we are ragdoll kitten breeders and all the love we bestow by holding each cat and kitten daily further Teacup RAGDOLL Kittens for sale|Hypoallergenic kittens for sale nurtures their loving personalities and temperaments,TICA/CFA REGISTERED RAGDOLL KITTENS FOR SALE thanks for adopting a ragdoll ketten from us

    Hello, and welcome to our website for buy fennec foxes as pets. A family run farm, we have extensive experience in breeding fennec foxes.

    READ MORE We provide new homes for our baby fennec fox pets for sale. We equally provide shipping services to ensure your fox arrives your location with no hassles. Due to
    fennec fox pet for sele being illegal in certain states, we do not facilitate delivery nationwide. Our Fennec Foxes for Sale are limited to a select states which consider it legal. We equally facilitate the acquisition of Permits in states which require on before owning a
    buy baby fennec fox for sele

    ReplyDelete
  44. After reading your article I was amazed. I know that you explain it very well. And I hope that other readers will also experience how I feel after reading your article.
    data analytics courses in mumbai
    data science interview questions

    ReplyDelete
  45. I finally found great post here.I will get back here. I just added your blog to my bookmark sites. thanks.Quality posts is the crucial to invite the visitors to visit the web page, that's what this web page is providing.
    data science course Mumbai
    data science interview questions
    data analytics course in mumbai

    ReplyDelete
  46. Marijuana—also called weed, herb, pot, grass, bud, ganja, Mary Jane, and a vast number of other slang terms—is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried flowers of Cannabis sativa.

    The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the psychoactive ingredient. The highest concentrations of THC are found in the dried flowers, or buds. When marijuana smoke is inhaled, THC rapidly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream and is carried to the brain and other organs throughout the body. THC from the marijuana acts on specific receptors in the brain, called cannabinoid receptors, starting off a chain of cellular reactions that finally lead to the euphoria, or "high" that users experience. Feeling of a relaxed state, euphoria, and an enhanced sensory perception may occur. With higher THC levels in those who are not used to the effects, some people may feel anxious, paranoid, or have a panic attack.
    Cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol, one of the 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids. 
    buy real weed online
    how to buy weed online
    buy legal weed online
    buy recreational weed online
    buy weed edibles online
    can i buy weed online
    buy medical weed online
    buy weed online canada
    buying weed online reviews
    buy weed online legit
    buy weed online without medical card
    buy weed seeds online canada
    order marijuana online
    order marijuana seeds online
    how to order marijuana online
    order marijuana online without a medical card
    can you order medical marijuana online
    order marijuana online

    ReplyDelete

  47. Thanks for sharing such a great information.It is really one of the finest article and more informative too. I want to share some informative data about net developer training and c# training videos . Expecting more articles from you.

    ReplyDelete
  48. Thank you so much for posting this kind of content, your content delivery is awesome.I'm also sharing my nice stuff to you guys please go through it and take a review.
    virtual assistant
    freelance web developer
    freelance web developer
    php developers
    Offshore Software Development
    seo india

    ReplyDelete
  49. Whatever we gathered information from the blogs, we should implement that in practically then only we can understand that exact thing clearly aws developer training , but it’s no need to do it, because you have explained the concepts very well. It was crystal clear, keep sharing..aws tutorial videos


    ReplyDelete
  50. Poker online situs terbaik yang kini dapat dimainkan seperti Bandar Poker yang menyediakan beberapa situs lainnya seperti http://62.171.128.49/hondaqq/ , kemudian http://62.171.128.49/gesitqq/, http://62.171.128.49/gelangqq/, dan http://62.171.128.49/seniqq. yang paling akhir yaitu http://62.171.128.49/pokerwalet/. Jangan lupa mendaftar di panenqq silakan dicoba ya boss

    ReplyDelete
  51. This is so elegant and logical and clearly explained. Brilliantly goes through what could be a complex process and makes it obvious. sap bi training

    ReplyDelete
  52. Thank you so much for sharing this information.This post helped me in Understanding Lifecycle in Android Activity .keep up the good work by sharing such blogs in future.This blog was really helpful.

    ReplyDelete

  53. Wow. That is so elegant and logical and clearly explained. Brilliantly goes through what could be a complex process and makes it obvious.I want to refer about the tableau training and tableau learning videos

    ReplyDelete
  54. Whatever we gathered information from the blogs, we should implement that in practically then only we can understand that exact thing clearly, but it’s no need to do it, because you have explained the concepts very well. It was crystal clear, keep sharing..

    workflow tutorial

    ReplyDelete
  55. Whatever we gathered information from the blogs, we should implement that in practically then only we can understand that exact thing clearly, but it’s no need to do it, because you have explained the concepts very well. It was crystal clear, keep sharing..

    sap bw on hana tutorial

    ReplyDelete
  56. I have to search sites with relevant information on given topic and provide them to teacher our opinion and the article.
    ExcelR digital marketing courses in mumbai

    ReplyDelete
  57. I like your article Your take on this topic is well-written and original. I would never have thought of this.
    Best Data Science training in Mumbai

    Data Science training in Mumbai

    ReplyDelete
  58. Thanks for the informative article about Java. This is one of the best resources I have found in quite some time. Nicely written and great info. I really cannot thank you enough for sharing.

    Java training in chennai | Java training in annanagar | Java training in omr | Java training in porur | Java training in tambaram | Java training in velachery

    ReplyDelete
  59. I am inspired with your post writing style & how continuously you describe this topic. After reading your post, thanks for taking the time to discuss this servicenow training , I feel happy about it and I love learning more about this topic.

    ReplyDelete
  60. Getting traffic is definitely not the only reason why you should allow comments. Here are some of the most powerful reasons you shouldn’t avoid. It Helps You.really nice to see.
    Ai & Artificial Intelligence Course in Chennai
    PHP Training in Chennai
    Ethical Hacking Course in Chennai Blue Prism Training in Chennai
    UiPath Training in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  61. If you want to instagram followers to increase engagement and reach the target audience. Buy Mumbai Instagram followers
    We are offer 100% real and active followers. I like your post.

    ReplyDelete
  62. Good Post! , it was so good to read and useful to improve my knowledge as an updated one, keep blogging. After seeing your article I want to say that also a well-written article with some very good information which is very useful for the AWS Cloud Practitioner Online Training

    ReplyDelete
  63. For a newbie in android development world this is such a valuable post. Thanks.
    <a href="https://devopstraininginpune.com/courses/devops-online-training/>DevOps Online Training</a>

    ReplyDelete
  64. This blog is the general information for the feature. You got a good work for this blog.We have a developing our creative content of this mind.Thank you for this blog. This for very interesting and useful.



    Data Science Training in Chennai

    Data Science Training in Velachery

    Data Science Training in Tambaram

    Data Science Training in Porur

    Data Science Training in Omr
    Data Science Training in Annanagar



    ReplyDelete
  65. Nice article, Explained in detail about android & iOS software, We are Top android & iOS game development companies in chennai.Top Android / IOS game development companies in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  66. Excellent article about SAP, It is very useful for SAP freshers. We are the top android & iOS game development companies in chennai.Top Android / IOS game development companies in chennai

    ReplyDelete


  67. Really, this article is truly one of the best, information shared was valuable and resourceful Very good work thank you.
    tally training in chennai

    hadoop training in chennai

    sap training in chennai

    oracle training in chennai

    angular js training in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  68. Really interesting topic and helpful explanation. Thank you for sharing the article.

    Looking for the best ppc course in Bangalore, India? Learn PPC from Ranjan Jena, 10+ Years Expert Google Ads Trainer. 1000+ Students Trained @ eMarket Education, Koramangala, Bangalore.
    Best Online Digital Marketing Courses in Bangalore, India
    Best Digital Marketing Institute in Bangalore

    ReplyDelete
  69. Very interesting article to read it. I would like to thank you for the efforts you had made for writing this wonderful article. This article inspired me to read more. Keep sharing on updated posts…

    Learn Digital Marketing Course in Bangalore with Live Project Work & Case Studies taught by Ranjan Jena (10Yrs Trainer). 100% Guarantee to Clear Job Interview.

    ReplyDelete
  70. Looking for the best PPC course in Bangalore India? Learn PPC from Ranjan Jena, 10+ Years Expert Google Ads Trainer. 1000+ Students Trained @ eMarket Education, Koramangala, Bangalore.
    Best Online Digital Marketing Courses in Bangalore
    Best Digital Marketing Institute in Bangalore

    ReplyDelete

  71. This is a good post. This post gives truly quality information. I’m definitely going to look into it. Really very useful tips are provided here. Thank you so much. Keep up the good works ExcelR Data Analytics Courses

    ReplyDelete
  72. your blog is awesome. i like your effort.you can buy dank vape , marijuana and veeds at cheapest rate by us. buy-vape-danks-ancient-og-10carts/

    ReplyDelete
  73. Good Post! , it was so good to read and useful to improve my knowledge as an updated one, keep blogging. After seeing your article I want to say that also a well-written article with some very good information which is very useful for the readers.thanks for sharing it and do share more posts like this.


    IT Training in Pune with placements

    IT Training in Pune

    ReplyDelete
  74. Really nice and informative blog, keep it up. Thanks for sharing and I have some suggestions.
    if you want to learn Mobile App Development(android, iOS), Join Now Mobile App Training in Bangalore.
    Visit a Website:- Android Training in Bangalore | AchieversIT
    This may help you to find something useful

    ReplyDelete
  75. Infycle Technologies, the top software training institute and placement center in Chennai offers the Best Digital Marketing course in Chennai for freshers, students, and tech professionals at the best offers. In addition to Digital Marketing, other in-demand courses such as DevOps, Data Science, Python, Selenium, Big Data, Java, Power BI, Oracle will also be trained with 100% practical classes. After the completion of training, the trainees will be sent for placement interviews in the top MNC's. Call 7504633633 to get more info and a free demo.

    ReplyDelete
  76. At Tutorsbot Institute - Training programs are job focused with real time application. Aws course in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  77. Nice post. Thank you to provide us this useful information. Resident Evil 6 Leon Kennedy Jacket

    ReplyDelete
  78. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. I am hoping for the same best work from you in the future as well..
    best digital marketing course in hyderabad

    ReplyDelete
  79. Thank you for sharing this great blog, very true information. Your writing skills are very good, you have to write this kind of blogging
    salon at home near me
    home salon services near me
    Waxing Salon At home in Noida
    beauty services at home near me

    ReplyDelete
  80. I truly like you're composing style, incredible data, thankyou for posting. data analytics course in surat

    ReplyDelete
  81. Thanks for providing recent updates regarding the concern, I look forward to read more. business analytics course in surat

    ReplyDelete
  82. Thanks for the best blog. it was very useful for me.keep sharing such ideas in the future as well. data analytics course in mysore

    ReplyDelete
  83. Incredible blog here! It's mind boggling posting with the checked and genuinely accommodating data. Baby Driver Jacket

    ReplyDelete
  84. This is a really very nice post you shared, i like the post, thanks for sharing..
    data scientist course

    ReplyDelete
  85. For all the different nodes this could easily cost thousands a month, 인천출장샵require lots of ops knowledge and support, and use up lots of electricity. To set all this up from scratch could cost one to four weeks of developer time depending on if they know the various stacks already. Perhaps you'd have ten nodes to support.

    ReplyDelete